Since the end of April Nakhchivan’s issue doesn’t leave pages of Armenian, Turkish, and Azeri Mass Media. Politicians, political scientists and observers of three states in different ways and with varying degrees of optimism comment the statements of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Turkey Ahmed Davutoglu on the "rights and obligations” of Turkey regarding to Nakhchivan. Meanwhile Davutoglu statements identify new Ankara’s military-political game in the region, able to explode situation not only in Caucasus for a long time. This statement should not add any optimism first and foremost, to Azerbaijan, and to the Turkey citizens too. Even the very attempt to implement Turkey plans announced by Davutoglu will become the war catalyst with many countries forced drawn in.
There is no coincidence that Turkey plans on Nakhchivan announced so far only by the Minister of Foreign Affairs. The method of throwing the "trial balloon” is common in large policy; the reaction of the interested countries determines further policy of the country. From this point of view the silence of official structures of countries that Ahmedoglu’s statement refers directly is very interesting. We mention: Armenia, Russia and Azerbaijan. And if Turkish "new” policy, and it’s very likely, is discussed with Azerbaijan, then the silence of Baku and Yerevan could be treated in two ways. These countries either inexcusably long study this information, or they are simply ready to cut the Gordian Knots militarily. In this case the absence of official reaction is Turkish invitation to implement Davutoglu’s announced adventurous and provocative plans, I’ll repeat, it could be fraught with a lot of blood.
At the end of April Vasif Talybov, Parliamentary chairman of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic visited Turkey. Hard to say, what were the goals of this trip? It would be logical to assume that Aliyev attempts to secure Nakhchivan in case of renewed hostilities with NKR and Armenia. However, there are a lot of indications that Vasif Talybov, who always positioned himself as staunch supporter of Aliyev’s clan, today started his own game on gaining more independence for Nakhchivan or even its withdrawal from Azerbaijan. In any case, Ahmed Davutoglu’s statements made immediately after the meeting with Talybov (we’ll talk more about them later) indicate theses precise developments in the region.
Note, twenty years ago there was an attempt to withdraw Nakhchivan from Azerbaijan’s administrative government. During Azerbaijan’s aggression against NKR in 1991-94 years Nakhchivan (until 1993) had been led by the father of current President of Azerbaijan Heydar Aliyev, who has concluded with Armenia separate agreement on mutual non-aggression. Baku perceived this agreement as betrayal, since it allowed Armenia to release considerable forces to transfer them to the eastern front. However, at those days Heydar Aliyev least of all thought about Azerbaijan Republic: in Nakhchivan he attempted to organize his own khanate-state! Meanwhile, H. Aliyev, an experienced politician, maintained contacts and weaved intrigues in Azerbaijan. However, at the first opportunity he provoked there a military coup, as a result of it he managed to add Azerbaijan Republic to Nakhchivan. Azerbaijan had been added to Nakhchivan, not vice versa; it’s confirmed, inter alia, by the complete control of Nakhchivani descendants over the military-political system of Azerbaijan.
It is seems like Vasif Talybov plans, despite his nickname "Vaska insatiable”, are limited to the Nakhchivan, and they do not apply to the territory of Azerbaijan. Today as the sole master of this land, he clearly tired of (even if it's ephemeral) dependence on Aliyev. Talybov exerted a lot of efforts and invest a lot of resources to strengthen Aliyev’s authority in Azerbaijan, and possibly, this circumstance frightens him the most. The master of Nakhchivan is well aware about Aliyev's determination to remove all, who in one way or another was involved in his ascent to the presidency. The twisted fates of A. Muradverdiev, A. Insanov, F. Aliyev, G. Abdullaev, F. Yusifov and other teammates of father and son Aliyevs are constant reminders of the frailty power with Aliyevs.
At the same time, Talybov understands that his opportunities in Azerbaijan are limited. Talybov never worked in Azerbaijan for any significant office and never had a chance to acquire his own team. Furthermore, frequent publications in Azeri press, representing his Khanate in unattractive way, create negative image of the Nakhchivani Parliamentary chairman. Talybov is well aware of the total media control in Azerbaijan by the presidential administration, and he could not fail to see in these articles the signs of the imminent threat for his well-being. All this leads Talybov to the path well-trodden by H. Aliyev to Nakhchivan's national independence. The task is facilitated by the fact that Nakhchivan is an exclave; the defense same as the occupation of this region presents considerable difficulties for Baku. It seems that Talybov’s trip to Turkey could be connected with his separatist plans. Why Turkey, rather than, Iran that has longer border with Nakhchivan?
The answer to this question is in political contradictions between the government of Turkey and Azerbaijan. The task of Turkish-Azerbaijani relations requires a separate study, and, nevertheless, note that the external decent relations between the leaders of ruling Justice and Development party in Turkey (President of Turkey A. Gul, Prime Minister R.T. Erdogan), with the President of Azerbaijan I. Aliyev in reality represent the hidden uncompromising opposition. Baku finally deprived of Turkish government’s confidence, especially after signing protocols with Armenia on improving relations Aliyev (ethnic Kurd by origin) sickens of AKP's Islamist policy, and Ankara's policy of mass terror towards Kurds conducted in Southeastern part of Turkey. In its turn Turkey shows discontent with Baku’s policy, expressed in financial support to the Kurdish rebel forces, in support to the oppositional Turkish movement "Ergenekon”, in tendency to tie Ankara’s foreign policy along with the foreign policy problems of Azerbaijan, in pricing intransigency and transit of energy resources through Turkey.
Talybov knew where he has to go. He knew Turkish specific interpretation of Moscow and Kars Treatys’ features, concluded in 1921. There is no coincidence that mentioned-above A Davutoglu’s statements were announced immediately after the meeting with the Parliamentary chairman of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic V. Talybov.
Agreements of 1921
In March 1921, Kemalist Turkey signed an agreement with Bolshevik Russia; its consequences still affect the political field of Transcaucasia. The Moscow Treaty is a clear illustration of the agreement of two important and totalitarian states due to the territories and the national interests of the third country. The result of this agreement (should be called "conspiracy”), extensive Armenian territories were withdrawn to Turkey, total area of approximately 30 thousand square kilometers. Note that this territory was occupied during Turkey’s armed aggression against Armenia that ended three and a half month earlier before the signing of agreement. Note also that the very fact of aggression became possible due to the enormous Bolshevik’s military-economic aid to Turkey. This aid was sent to Turkey with the purpose to ensure the military superiority over Armenia and was transferred on condition that Turkey will use this advantage to attack "bourgeois” Armenia. The result of this adventure already mentioned, Turkey invaded Armenia and occupied Armenian territories.
Thus, Moscow Treaty was intended to secure for Turkey won Armenian territories. Thus, in the Article 1 of Moscow Treaty sides "determined” with Turkey territory: "North-eastern border of Turkey is determined: by a line, starting at the Sarp village, on the Black sea, passes through the Hedismta mountain, through the watershed line of Shavshet mountain of Canneh-Dag mountains, then, it follows the northern administrative border of Ardahan and Kars sanjak - the thalweg of rivers Arpa-Chai and Araks to the estuary of the lower Karasu (detailed description of the border and issues related to the task are defined in Annex I (A) on the attached map, signed by both Contracting Parties)”. Thus, Bolsheviks accepted the results of Turkey’s aggression and occupation of extensive Armenian territories.
Not confining this flagrant injustice, (Article III) of Moscow Treaty also "solves” the fate of Nakhchivan not connected nor to Bolshevik Russia neither to Turkey: "Both of the Contracting Parties are agree, that Nakhchivan within the limits specified in Annex 1 (C) of the present Treaty, constitutes autonomous territory under the protectorate of Azerbaijan, on condition that Azerbaijan will not yield this protectorate to the third State”.
Both Moscow and Ankara were aware of criminal illegality of such "solution” toward the fate of ancient Armenian province. They knew the fact that this document, without the formal consent of Armenia, has no legal value. For this reason the Article XV of Moscow Treaty, intended "to legalize” this solution: "Russia is obliged to undertake necessary actions for the obligatory recognition by Transcaucasian republics in agreements to be concluded by them with Turkey, the articles of present Treaty, directly concern them”.
In fact this article clearly demonstrates the criminal Lenin-Ataturk plan, aimed to consolidate Turkey aggression against Armenia, committed as mentioned above, with the direct complicity of Leninist clique. Let’s also recall that during the signing of Moscow Treaty, in Armenia was brutally suppressed anti-Soviet revolt by the forces of XI Red Army. Bolsheviks "undertook necessary actions” to force Armenia to agree with the predatory criminal Treaty. It is reasonable to say that Bolsheviks were wreaking havoc to Armenian people for their unwillingness to obey Bolshevik orders imposed them by force.
All above-listed give moral and legal right to the modern Republic of Armenia do not recognize the legality of Moscow and the subsequent Kars Treaty, and also to denounce Kars Treaty as the consequence of conspiracy between two totalitarian states.
Recall that Article 5 of the Kars Treaty practically verbatim Article III of Moscow Treaty: "Turkish Government and Soviet governments of Azerbaijan and Armenia are agree that Nakhchivan within the limits specified in Annex 3 of present Treaty, constitutes autonomous territory under protection of Azerbaijan”. Interesting that Kars Treaty, in the part about Nakhchivan doesn’t have reservation "on condition that Azerbaijan will not yield this protectorate to the third State”. In fact, Armenia is the only "third State” that has historic and ethnic rights on Nakhchivan, was forced to sign this predatory Treaty, therefore, according to the intention of scenarists, the reservation about possible "concession of protectorate” lost its sense.
Armenian Nakhchivan - illegal part of Azerbaijan Republic
The essence of Moscow Treaty (Conspiracy) and political transaction in Kars about Nakhchivan consisted not in the transfer of Armenian province to Azerbaijan, but in its withdrawal from Armenia. For Russia, seeing Caucasus in united Soviet State, did not matter, which one of Soviet republic to be composed of Nakhchivan. Nakhchivan had quite different meaning for Turkey; since Turkey didn’t have common border with its born Azerbaijan republic, the first Turkic state in Caucasus. That is why Turkey made great efforts in order to separate Nakhchivan from Armenia and to include it "under the protectorate” of Azerbaijan.
Interesting, by the way, why "protectorate”, not the part of Azerbaijan. No doubts that Russia and Turkey, if desired, could obtain from the Moscow puppets (all without exclusion leaders of occupied Armenia) any "right” decision. Most likely, Turkey, not having common border with Azerbaijan, aimed the creation of one more Turkish state in the region. State, since protectorate is established between the state bodies, rather than state and its part. However, Ankara was well aware, that Nakhchivan locating under the protectorate of Azerbaijan, fairly quickly "will get rid” of indigenous Armenian population and will become mono-ethnic Turkish formation.
Even before that there was an event, which requires clarification. In 1923 Azerbaijan violated Moscow and Kars Treaty (Conspiracy), and added Nakhchivan to itself. This process started on 3rdCongress of Nakhchivan regional party organization, decided "to recognize Nakhchivan Soviet Socialist Republic as the integral part of Azerbaijan SSR, consider the affiliation as vital need for the Mountainous Land”. Following this, question was "approved” on 5th Congress of Azerbaijan Communist Party (Bolsheviks).
Here interesting to quote S. Kirov's speech at 5th Congress of Azerbaijan Communist Party (b): "… you, probably read that (in Nakhchivan - L.M. -Sh) Congress of Soviets amicably and unanimously decreed to consider them not under some protectorate of Azerbaijan, but as the integral part of Azerbaijan as an autonomous unit”.
Thus, as "solution” of Nakhchivan regional party organization and the ensuing decision of 5th Congress of Azerbaijan Communist Party (b), eloquently testify the fact that up till 1923 Nakhchivan was not considered as part of Azerbaijan SSR.
Clear that the solution about recognition Nakhchivan "as the integral part of Azerbaijan SSR” was approved with Moscow consent. Undoubtedly, the fact of possible (or announced) protests of Yerevan - the guarantor of Nakhchivan status - were banned (or muted) by Moscow Bolsheviks. Why Turkey (an independent country and another guarantor of Nakhchivan status) was silent in 1923?
In "association” of Nakhchivan and Azerbaijan SSR Ankara clearly saw its political benefits, let to gain common border not with the small province, but with united Turkish state in Transcaucasia. For this purpose Turkey initiated contacts with Teheran, and as a result of it in 1931 exchanged the part of its border lands with Iran, getting 11 kilometers border with Nakhchivan. Thus, Turkey "reserved” the option of outlet to Transcaucasia and common border with Turkish Azerbaijan. Thus, Bolsheviks, wittingly or unwittingly, contributed to the Pan-Turkic plans on creation large Turkish state in Transcaucasia.
Turkey is not the safety guarantor of Nakhchivan status
Return, to the recent statements of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Turkey A. Davutoglu. After the meeting with Parliamentary chairman of Nakhchivan Talybov, Davutoglu stated: "Turkey respects the international documents that it signed and according to the Kars Peace Treaty remains the safety guarantor of Nakhchivan'”. "Turkey - the guarantor of Nakhchivan status - and this is obvious. This is the requirement of international law and the responsibility of Turkey”.
Davutoglu’s passage about Nakhchivan’s safety is a pure fiction, not coming from the essence or text of Moscow and Kars Treaties (Conspiracies). The texts of these documents (there are no others) do not provide any warranty and indicate only the fact of final transaction. Davutoglu’s reference to the Kars Treaty is nothing but the craftiness not deserving commentaries.
At the same time Turkey could not be considered as guarantor of Nakhchivan status! Turkey was late exactly for 87 years with its statement about the respect of the Kars Treaty. In 1923, when Azerbaijan, violated feature of the Treaty and changed Nakhchivan’s status, Ankara, "forgot” the international law requirements and its responsibilities and preferred to remain silent. Turkey, by default, deprived itself of any responsibilities relating to the status of Armenian province. Today's speeches of Turkish political figures on this task should be severely suppressed. Even if it is only the "trial balloon”.